Hand Pumps and foot pumps are manually operated pumps that can driven by hand or foot via a handle or lever. This manual external force actuates an internal mechanism, which increases pressure for moving fluids such as gas, chemicals, or water. Hand lever and foot pedals are pushed up or down to begin the pump cycle, often requiring one stroke to draw the fluid and another stroke to discharge it, as is typical in many displacement pumps.
Hand pumps and foot pumps are generally of hydraulic and pneumatic design. Hydraulic hand pumps and foot pumps are used to manually pressurize a hydraulic system and for instrument calibration. Pneumatic hand pumps and foot pumps are designed for testing and instrument calibration. A fluid reservoir is generally supplied with hydraulic and pneumatic hand pumps as an integral part of the pump or an independent part. It holds a quantity of fluid for the pump to use to power hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders.
Hand pumps and foot pumps may also be called drum pumps, which will require handles, levers, and plungers to begin dispensing the fluid from a pail, drum, or tank. Drum pumps may mount manually or with a clamp. Although the actual hand pumps may be portable and lighter in weight, it may be preferable to keep the pail, drum or barrel stationary due to the properties of the fluid and the pumping environment. Hand pumps and foot pumps can be of reciprocating or rotary types. Most rotary types use a drive rather than a lever or crank. In reciprocating type hand pumps, a hydraulic or pneumatic piston is used to create the pressure needed to move the media. Hand pumps can also be diaphragm pumps as in marine applications where seawater is pumped from the bilge. Diaphragm hand pumps are displacement pumps that use a rubber disk to alternate air or fluid. The diaphragm is actuated by the pressures or vacuums created during the pump cycle.
Hand pumps and foot pumps are portable and field operable where electric drives may not be available. A gage is often attached to hand pumps to measure pressure. Calibration hand pumps can be sold as a kit or will require calibration instruments, indicators, gages, and other instrumentation.