LW Sawyer Well Drilling, Inc.
Carver, Ma. 1-508-746-9465
LW Sawyer Well Drilling, Inc.LW Sawyer Well Drilling, Inc.

Hydrologic Cycle

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Hydrologic Cycle

Hydrologic Cycle: 
All movements of water and water vapor in the atmosphere, on and below the ground surface, and the return to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration

Artesian Well System:
An Artesian Well is generally a deeper type of water well tapping a confined or artesian aquifer.  The term artesian well is sometimes used to include all wells tapping a confined body of water.  When a layer of overlapping impermeable formation such as rock or slate so that it is under pressure greater that than atmospheric pressure confines water, the water is said to be under artesian pressure. Not all water that is under artesian pressure will rise above the top of the water table. In Massachusetts, the term artesian well is commonly called bedrock well. These types of wells generally supply water of exceptionable quality.

Aquiclude: 
A formation, which, although capable of absorbing water, will not transmit it, fast enough to furnish enough for a well or water supply.

Aquifer:  
Is a formation or group of formations that contain adequate saturated permeable material to yield significant quantities of water to wells or rings.

Area of Influence: 
The area which ground water or pressure surface contours are modified by pumping.

Artesian Confined Aquifer:
Artesian water and artesian water body is water confined by a layer of overlapping impermeable formation such as rock or slate so that the water under pressure is greater  than atmospheric pressure. The water level in an artesian well stands above the top of the artesian water body it taps.

Bed:  
A layer in body of sedimentary rock.

Capillary Fringe:
 The zone immediately above the water table in which most of the interstices are filled with water that is under less atmospheric pressure. The water is held above the water table by surface tension.

Climatic Cycle:
 Periodic fluctuations of climate, including a series of dry years and a series of years with heavy rainfall.

Confined Ground Water:  
A body of ground water overlain by impervious material.

Confining Layer:
A layer of overlapping impermeable formation such as rock or slate so that water contained underneath it is under pressure greater  than atmospheric pressure

Drawdown:
 
Lowering of the water level caused by pumping. It is measured for a given quantity of water pumped during a specific period.

Effective Velocity:
 The actual velocity of ground water percolating through water-bearing material. It is measured by volume of ground water passing through a unit cross-sectional area divided by effective porosity.

Field Capacity:
 The capacity of the soil to hold pellicular water, measured by the soil scientist as the ratio of weight of water retained by the soil to the weight of dry soil.

Fixed Ground Water:
 Water held in saturated material that moves so slowly that it is not available as a source of water for pumping.

Ground Water:
A part of rainfall that eventually finds its way to a level where all of the earth's voids and openings are filled with water. This area is known as the zone of saturation. Water in the zone of saturation is known as ground water.

Ground Water Hydrology:
 The branch of the science of hydrology concerned with the occurrence, distribution, and movement of water below the surface of the earth.

Hardness:
 Calcium and magnesium salts, present in most natural waters causing the water to be hard. Natural waters will vary in hardness depending on location.

Hard Formation Rock Bits:
 A bit which have short teeth and are milled with a large included angle to resist breakage.

Hydrograph:
 A graphic plot of changes in flow of water or in elevation of water against time.

Hydrophilic:  
A substance that absorbs water.

Hydrophobic:  
A substance which repels water.

Igneous Rock: Rock made the solidification of molten mater that originated within the earth.

Juvenile Water:
 New water of magmatic, volcanic or cosmic origin added to the terrestrial water supply.

Magma:
 
Molten rock-matter together with it's devolved gas or vapor.

Meteoric water:
 Water derived from the atmosphere.

Native Clay:
 Consists of mostly illite and kaolinite, although calcium bentonite and other clay minerals may be present. Usually a fine sand and silt are associated with clay.

Perched Ground Water:
 Ground water in a saturated zone that is separated from the main body of ground water by unsaturated rock.

Permeability:
 
The capacity of water-bearing material to transmit water measured by the quantity of water passing through a unit cross section in a unit of time.

pH:
 A measure of the acidity of alkalinity of water.

Phosphate:  
In many natural waters, phosphate occurs in trace amounts.
Porosity: The property of rock or soil containing interstices or voids for fluid transmission.

Precipitation:
 Theprocess that atmospheric moisture falls to the surface as snow, rain and other forms of moisture.

Pressure Surface:
 The surface to which confined water will rise in non-pumping wells which pierce a common conduit and the water levels of which are not effected by a pumping well.

Pressure-surface Map:
A map showing the contours (isopiestic lines) of the pressure surface of a confined water system.

Rejuvenated Water:
 Water returned to the terrestrial water supply by geologic process of compaction and metamorphism.

Soda Ash:
 (Washing soda, Sodium Carbonate) Used to remove hardness from water by precipitating calcium and magnesium salts, to raise the pH of acidic waters.

Specific Absorption:
 
The capacity of water bearing material to absorb water after all gravity water has been removed, It is the ratio of the volume of water absorbed by the volume of material saturated.

Specific Capacity: 
Is the rate of discharge of water from the well divided by the drawdown of water level within the well. It varies with the duration of discharge. If the specific capacity is constant except for the time variation, it is roughly proportional to the transmissivity of the aquifer. The relation between discharge and drawdown is affected by the construction of the well, the character of the screen or casing perforation and the velocity and length of flow up the casing.

Spring:
 A concentrated discharge of ground water issuing at the surface as a current of flowing water.

Standing Level:
 The water level in a non-pumping well. The term is used without regard to whether the well is within or outside the area of influence of other pumping wells.

Starting Pressure:
 
The distance in feet from the static water level to the bottom of the air line or foot piece x 0.434 = p.s.i.

Static Level: 
The water level in a non-pumping well outside the area of influence of any pumping well.

Subsurface Water:
 All water below the ground surface.

Surface Runoff:
 The runoff of precipitation, which flows to streams over the surface of the ground.

Suspended Water:
 Water in the zone of aeration.

Transpiration: 
The discharge of water vapor by plants.

Volcanic Water:
 Juvenile water from lava flows and volcanic centers.

Water Well Construction:
Water wells can be classified by the type of construction. The type of construction depends on the depth of the well, the geological formation encountered, and the amount of water needed for the system

The most common type of well for domestic water wells is the drilled or water table well, often incorrectly called an artesian well. A drilled or water table well offers good protection against contamination from the surface. 

Water Table Well System:
A water table well is a more shallow type of water well. A water table well is drilled deep enough so as to penetrate ground water that has accumulated below the surface from rainwater that has percolated below. In New England, ground water table aquifers occur in formations in sand and gravel. Ground water is an excellent source of water as it has been filtered by natural formations.

Water Table:
 
That surface in an unconfined water body at which the pressure is atmospheric. It is defined by the levels at which water stands in wells that the water body.

Water Table Map:
 A contour map of the upper surface of the saturated zone.

Zone of Aeration:
 The zone above the water table in which the interstices (voids) are filled with air.

Zone of Saturation: 
The zone below the water table in which all interstices (voids) are filled with water.

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